For the working age population, training is usually job-related. According to a study conducted in the UK (Well-being benefits of job-related training, 2017), professional competence development is strongly associated with an increase in both cultural and social capital, as well as with economic advantages gained through professional development. The study showed increased job satisfaction among those receiving job-related training.
In other words, job-related training increases well-being; however, job-related training also attracts people whose well-being is on a good level to begin with.
“This association works in both directions, but is statistically tricky to study. After all, we are dealing with the classic ‘the chicken or the egg’ problem. For instance, many employers invest in employees working in white-collar and expert roles, whose state of health is better than average to begin with,” Manninen says.
In addition, Manninen’s research has found that hobby related, non-vocational education also yields similar benefits.
“All competence development increases well-being, be it directly job-related or for example voluntary work or a hobby. When people feel that they are good and competent at something, it increases their self-confidence and agency. This, in turn, is reflected on well-being and lifestyle choices.”