The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study

The KIHD Study is an ongoing prospective population-based cohort study designed to investigate risk factors for CVD, atherosclerosis and related outcomes in middle-aged men from eastern Finland, the population with one of the highest recorded rates of CHD.

The study population is a random sample of men living in the Kuopio city and neighbouring rural communities, stratified and balanced into four strata: 42, 48, 54, or 60 years at the baseline examination. A total of 2682 participants (82.9 % those eligible), were enrolled in the study between 1984 and 1989.

The four-year examinations for the KIHD study were carried out during 1991 to 1993 for 1038 men. Eleven-year examinations were carried out in 1998 to 1999 for men and women and 20-year examinations 2006-8. Dietary intake of nutrients was assessed quantitatively with a four day food recording at the KIHD baseline and 11-year examinations.

The explanatory data at use includes factors from genomics through bioactive molecules, pathophysiological changes (such as abnormal ECG, changes during excersise test, atherosclerosis, findings from echocardiography etc) to individual behaviors, lifestyle, personality characteristics, psychological profiles, early life histories, worktime exposures, signs of cognitive impairment at later middle-age etc. The cohort are now starting to turn geriatric, and this will bring new interesting challenges for research in coming years.

We have recently joined many notable international research consortia, where our data has been pooled or analysed together with dozens of other high-quality studies in the world.

The KIHD has yielded close to 500 international, peer-reviewed original articles and more than 20 PhD theses. The project is expected to yield interesting results well into 2020's.

Some of our KIHD Study publications:

Virtanen Jyrki K, Mursu Jaakko, Tuomainen Tomi-Pekka, Voutilainen Sari. 2014. Dietary Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men: The Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. ATVB 2014;34:2679-87.

Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Di Angelantonio E, Gao P, Khan H, Butterworth AS, Wormser D, Kaptoge S, Kondapally Seshasai SR, Thompson A, Sarwar N, Willeit P, Ridker PM, Barr EL, Khaw KT, Psaty BM, Brenner H, Balkau B, Dekker JM, Lawlor DA, Daimon M et. al. 2014. Glycated hemoglobin measurement and prediction of cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2014;311:1225-33.

Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Uusitupa M, Tuomainen TP. Serum Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Diabetes Care 2014;37:189-96.

Mursu J, Virtanen JK, Tuomainen T-P, Nurmi T, Voutilainen S. Intake of fruits, berries and vegetables and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;99:328-33.

Mursu J, Virtanen JK, Rissanen TH, Tuomainen T-P, Nykänen I, Laukkanen JA, Kortelainen R, Voutilainen S. Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Finnish Men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk factor Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011;21:144-9.

Tuomainen T-P, Lagundoyo A, Voutilainen S. Coffee Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus –Role for Body Iron? Archives of Internal Medicine 2010;170:1400-1.

Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Tuomainen T-P. Serum Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. Circulation 2009;120:2315-2321.

Mursu J, Nurmi T, Tuomainen TP, Salonen JT, Pukkala E, Voutilainen S.Intake of flavonoids and risk of cancer in Finnish men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Int J Cancer 2008;123:660-3.

Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Maarit Korhonen, Jaakko Mursu, Jyrki K Virtanen, Pertti Happonen, Georg Alfthan, Iris Erlund, Kari A North, M J Mosher, Jussi Kauhanen, Jari Tiihonen, George A Kaplan, Jukka T Salonen. Interaction of serum total homocysteine and folate concentration and the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene with risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. PloS ONE 2007;2:e181.

Pertti Happonen, Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jukka T. Salonen. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism modifies the effect of coffee intake on incidence of acute coronary events. PloS ONE 2006;1:e117.

Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Mursu J, Tuomainen T-P, Korhonen MJ, Valkonen V-P, Seppänen K, Laukkanen JA, Salonen JT. Mercury Content of Hair and Risk of Acute Coronary Events and Cardiovascular and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Men in Eastern Finland. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2005;25:228-33.

Sari Voutilainen, Jyrki Virtanen, Tiina Rissanen, Georg Alfthan, Jari Laukkanen, Jaakko Mursu, Elina Porkkala-Sarataho, George A Kaplan, Jukka T Salonen. Serum folate, plasma homocysteine and incidence of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80:317-23.

Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Adlercreutz H, Salonen JT. Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Death According to Serum Concentrations of Enterolactone: Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163:1099-1104.

Voutilainen S, Rissanen T, Virtanen J, Lakka TA, Salonen JTS. Low folate intakes are associated with an excess risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Circulation 2001;103:2674-2680.

Rissanen T, Voutilainen S, Nyyssönen K, Lakka TA, Salonen JT. Fish oil derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Risk Factor Study. Circulation 2000;102 2677-2679.

Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, van der Lee M, Adlercreutz H, Salonen JT. Reduced risk of acute coronary events at high levels of mammalian lignan, enterolactone: a prospective population-based cohort study. Lancet 1999;354:2112-2115.