Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Alzheimer's Disease

Miia Kivipelto
Research Director
Professor, MD, PhD
 
University of Eastern Finland
Institute of Clinical Medicine / Neurology
Room 5026, Canthia Building
P.O.Box 1627 (Yliopistonranta 1C)
FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
fax +354 17 16 20 48


Aging Research Center 
Karolinska Institutet
Gävlegatan 16
S-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden  
mobile +46 73 99 409 22 
miia.kivipelto (at) ki.se

Present Position, Periods of Appointment

  • 2014 - present Head Clinical Trials Unit, Div. of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital
  • 2011- present Professor in Clinical Geriatric Epidemiology, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), KI
  • 2009 - present Senior Geriatrician at the Div. of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge (20% since 2011—part of the professor post)
  • 2006 - present (25% at the moment) Research Director of Neuroepidemiology, Department of Neurology, University of Eastern Finland (UEF) (former University of Kuopio)

Previous Positions, Periods of Appointment

  • 2009 - 2013 Deputy Head of Aging Research Center (ARC), NVS, KI
  • 2010 - 2011 University Lector in Clinical Geriatric Epidemiology, NVS, KI
  • 2008 - 2010 Universitetsadjunkt in Clinical Geriatric Epidemiology, NVS, KI
  • 2007 - 2012 (periodically on leave) Academy of Finland Senior Researcher
  • 2005 - 2007 Research Scientist, ARC and Div. of Clinical Geriatrics, KI
  • 2002 - 2009 Resident: Div. of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge 1999–2002 Resident at the Dept. of Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland
  • 1998 - 2001 Study physician in and coordinator of the CAIDE study, Univ. of Kuopio

Supervision (Main Supervisor of PhD Students and Post Docs)

  • Main supervisor of PhD students: 1. Tiia Ngandu 2006, 2. Suvi Rovio 2008, 3. Alina Solomon 2009, 4. Francesca Mangialasche 2012, 5. Minna Rusanen 2013, 6. Babak Hooshmand 2013. 7. Marjo Eskelinen 2014. 8. Miika Vuorinen. Currently main supervisor of 6 PhD students (KI, UEF).
  • Supervisor of post docs: 1. Alina Solomon 2009–2011 (now adjunct professor), 2. Tiia Ngandu 2011–present, 3. Anna-Maija Tolppanen 2011–present, 4. Francesca Mangialasche 2012–present, 5. Jenni Kulmala 2012–present, 6. Shireen Sindi 2013–present

Awards and Honours

  • Waijlit and Eric Forsgren's prize for distinguished Alzheimer's Researchers 2015
  • KI Skandia's Lennart Levi prize 2013
  • KI External research quality evaluation (ERA, international independent panel) 2011: grading ‘Excellent'
  • Junior Chamber International Award for Ten Outstanding Young Persons of the World 2011
  • Academy of Finland Award for Social Impact 2009
  • The Association of European Psychiatrists and European Bristol-Myers Squibb Prevention Award in Psychiatry 2007
  • Martti Hämäläinen's Award for Young Researcher 2002
  • Best Publication in Neuroscience, University of Kuopio Award 2002

Role in Studies/Databases

  • Principal investigator  - the CAIDE study 2004 - present 
  • In charge of clinical database (for research and quality control) at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge. 2006 - present
  • Principal investigator - Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (FINGER) 2009 - present
  • Expert/member of advisory boards for industry related to dementia studies 2004 - present
  • Founding member of Nordic Brain Network (meant to facilitate research collaboration and utilization of infrastructures and resources in Nordic countries) 2009 - present
  • Founding member of the European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI) 2011 - present
  • WP leader in two EU 7th framework large collaborative projects: LipiDiDiet - Medical Nutrition in prodromal AD 2009–2013, and Healthy Aging Through Internet Counseling in the Elderly (HATICE) project 2013 - ongoing
  • Project partner for the Social Innovations in Ageing Project. 2012 - present
  • Leader - Nordic Brain Network (NBN)

Publications

  • 165 articles published/accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, approx. 300 congress abstracts.
  • Sum of the times cited: 6,719 (average citation per item 35.02). H-Index: 36.
  • The most-cited original article: Kivipelto et al., "Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease in later life: longitudinal, population based study". BMJ 2001;322:1447-51 has >1000  citations.

Selected Publications

Feelings of hopelessness in midlife and cognitive health in later life: a population-based study. Håkansson K, Soininen H, Winblad, K, Mohammed AH, Kivipelto M. Am. J. Psych. (Submitted).

Vitamin D in Relation to Cognitive Impairment, Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers, and Brain Volumes. Hooshmand B, Lökk J, Solomon A, Mangialasche F, Miralbell J, Spulber G, Annerbo S, Andreasen N, Winblad B, Cedazo-Minguez A, Wahlund LO, Kivipelto M. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Feb 25, in press.

Association between mid- to late life physical fitness and dementia: evidence from the CAIDE study. Kulmala J, Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Ngandu T, Rantanen T, Laatikainen T, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Kivipelto M. J Intern Med. 2014 Jan 20; in press.

Future Directions in Alzheimer's Disease From Risk Factors to Prevention. Imtiaz B, Tolppanen A-M, Kivipelto M, Soininen H. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 15;88(4):661-70.

Midlife and late-life body mass index and late-life dementia: results from a prospective population-based cohort. Tolppanen AM, Ngandu T, Kåreholt I, Laatikainen T, Rusanen M, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38(1):201-9.

Midlife risk score for the prediction of dementia four decades later. Exalto L, Quesenberry C, Barnes D, Kivipelto M, Biessels G, Whitmer R. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Sep 10. pii: S1552-5260(13)02465-5.

The influence of multimorbidity on clinical progression of dementia in a population-based cohort. Melis RJ, Marengoni A, Rizzuto D, Teerenstra S, Kivipelto M, Angleman SB, Fratiglioni L. PLoS One. 2013; Dec 30;8(12): e84014.

Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults. Mangialasche F, Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Hooshmand B, Cecchetti R, Fratiglioni L, Soininen H, Laatikainen T, Mecocci P, Kivipelto M. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Dec;48(12):1428-35.

Plasma homocysteine, Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology: a population-based autopsy study. Hooshmand B, Polvikoski T, Kivipelto M, Tanskanen M, Myllykangas L, Erkinjuntti T, Mäkelä M, Oinas M, Paetau A, Scheltens P, van Straaten EC, Sulkava R, Solomon A. Brain. 2013 Sep;136:2707-16.

A new metabolomic workflow for early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Ibáñez C, Simó C, Barupal DK, Fiehn O, Kivipelto M, Cedazo-Mínguez A, Cifuentes A. J Chromatogr A. 2013; Aug 9;1302:65-71.

Validity of dementia and Alzheimer disease diagnoses in Finnish national registers. Solomon A, Ngandu T, Soininen H, Hallikainen M, Kivipelto M, Laatikainen T. Alzheimers Dement. 2014 May;10(3):303-9.

Risk factors for incident dementia in the very old. Wallin K, Boström G, Kivipelto M, Gustafson Y. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013 Jul;25(7):1135-43.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a population based CAIDE study. Rusanen M, Ngandu T, Laatikainen T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013 Jun;10(5):549-55.

The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): Study design and progress. Kivipelto M, Solomon A, Ahtiluoto S, Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Antikainen R, Bäckman L, Hänninen T, Jula A, Laatikainen T, Lindström J, Mangialasche F, Nissinen A, Paajanen T, Pajala S, Peltonen M, Rauramaa R, Stigsdotter-Neely A, Strandberg T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Nov;9(6):657-65.

Classification and prediction of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on MRI and plasma measures of α-/γ-tocotrienols and γ-tocopherol. Mangialasche F, Westman E, Kivipelto M, Muehlboeck JS, Cecchetti R, Baglioni M, Tarducci R, Gobbi G, Floridi P, Soininen H, Kłoszewska I, Tsolaki M, Vellas B, Spenger C, Lovestone S, Wahlund LO, Simmons A, Mecocci P; The AddNeuroMed consortium. J Intern Med. 2013 Jun;273(6):602-21.

History of Medically Treated Diabetes and Risk of Alzheimer Disease in a Nationwide Case-Control Study. Tolppanen AM, Lavikainen P, Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Uusitupa M, Soininen H, Hartikainen S. Diabetes Care. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Incidence of stroke in people with Alzheimer disease: A national register-based approach. Tolppanen AM, Lavikainen P, Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Soininen H, Hartikainen S. Neurology. 2013;80:353-8.

Changes in vascular factors 28 years from midlife and late-life cortical thickness. Vuorinen M, Kåreholt I, Julkunen V, Spulber G, Niskanen E, Paajanen T, Soininen H, Kivipelto M, Solomon A. Neurobiology of Aging. 2013;34:100-9.

Diagnostic power of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in cerebrospinal fluid: candidate marker of brain health. Leoni V, Solomon A, Lövgren-Sandblom A, Minthon L, Blennow K, Hansson O, Wahlund LO, Kivipelto M, Björkhem I. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013 Jan 1;36(4):739-47

GRN Variant rs5848 Reduces Plasma and Brain Levels of Granulin in Alzheimer's Disease Patients. Kämäläinen A, Viswanathan J, Natunen T, Helisalmi S, Kauppinen T, Pikkarainen M, Pursiheimo JP, Alafuzoff I, Kivipelto M, Haapasalo A, Soininen H, Herukka SK, Hiltunen M. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2013;33:23-7.

Toward a predictive model of Alzheimer's disease progression using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry metabolomics. Ibáñez C, Simó C, Martín-Álvarez PJ, Kivipelto M, Winblad B, Cedazo-Mínguez A, Cifuentes A. Analytical chemistry 2012;84:8532-40.

Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies. Tolppanen AM, Solomon A, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2012;32:531-40 Epub 2012 Jul 27.

Midlife rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of cognitive impairment two decades later: a population-based study. Wallin K, Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2012;313:669-76.

Cortical thickness in frontotemporal dementia, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  Kivipelto M, Vanninen R, Soininen H. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2012;30:857-74.

Differences in brain cholesterol metabolism and insulin in two subgroups of patients with different CSF biomarkers but similar white matter lesions suggest different pathogenic mechanisms. Besga A, Cedazo-Minguez A, Kåreholt I, Solomon A, Björkhem I, Winblad B, Leoni V, Hooshmand B, Spulber G, Gonzalez-Pinto A, Kivipelto M, Wahlund LO. Neuroscience letters 2012;510:121-6. Epub 2012 Jan 16.

Grey Matter and Cognitive Patterns in Cognitive Impaired Subjects Using CSF Biomarker Cut-Offs. Miralbell J, Spulber G, Hooshmand B, Besga A, Mataró M, Cedazo-Minguez A, Kivipelto M, Wahlund LO. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. Epub 2012 Feb 13.

Evolution of global and local grey matter atrophy on serial MRI scans during the progression from MCI to AD. Spulber G, Niskanen E, Macdonald S, Kivipelto M, Padilla D, Julkunen V, Hallikainen M, Vanninen R, Wahlund LO, Soininen H. Current Alzheimer research 2012;9:516-24.

Associations between serum homocysteine, holotranscobalamin, folate and cognition in the elderly: a longitudinal study. Hooshmand B, Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Rusanen M, Hänninen T, Leiviskä J, Winblad B, Laatikainen T, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Journal of internal medicine 2012;271:204-12.

Dementia after Age 75: Survival in Different Severity Stages and Years of Life Lost. Rizzuto D, Bellocco R, Kivipelto M, Clerici F, Wimo A, Fratiglioni L. Current Alzheimer research 2012;9:795-800 Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Structural brain changes and cognition in relation to markers of vascular dysfunction. Miralbell J, Soriano JJ, Spulber G, López-Cancio E, Arenillas JF, Bargalló N, Galán A, Barrios MT, Cáceres C, Alzamora MT, Pera G, Kivipelto M, Wahlund LO, Dávalos A, Mataró M. Neurobiology of Aging 2012;33:1003.e9-17.

Mild cognitive impairment associates with concurrent decreases in serum cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipoprotein subclasses. Hartikainen P, Räsänen P, Julkunen V, Niskanen E, Hallikainen M, Remes A, Tukiainen T, Jylänki P, Mäkinen V-P, Gröhn O, Hallikainen M, Soininen H, Kivipelto M, Kaski K, Groop P-H, Savolainen MJ, Pirttilä T, Pasi Soininen P, Ala-Korpela M. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 2012;16:631-5.

Metabolome in progression to Alzheimer's disease. Orešič M, Hyötyläinen T, Herukka SK, Sysi-Aho M, Mattila I, Seppänan-Laakso T, Julkunen V, Gopalacharyulu PV, Hallikainen M, Koikkalainen J, Kivipelto M, Helisalmi S, Lötjönen J, Soininen H. Translational Psychiatry 2011;1:e57.

Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment. Mangialasche F, Xu W, Kivipelto M, Costanzi E, Ercolani S, Pigliautile M, Cecchetti R, Baglioni M, Simmons A, Soininen H, Tsolaki M, Kloszewska I, Vellas B, Lovestone S, Mecocci P; AddNeuroMed Consortium. Neurobiology of Aging 2012;33:2282-90. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Education halves the risk of dementia due to apolipoprotein ε4 allele: a collaborative study from the Swedish Brain Power initiative. Wang HX, Gustafson DR, Kivipelto M, Pedersen NL, Skoog I, Windblad B, Fratiglioni L. Neurobiology of Aging 2012;33:1007.e1-7. Epub 2011 Nov 5.

Midlife healthy-diet index and late-life dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Eskelinen MH, Ngandu T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra 2011;1:103-12.

New insights into Alzheimer's disease progression: a combined TMS and structural MRI study. Niskanen E, Könönen M, Määttä S, Hallikainen M, Kivipelto M, Casarotto S, Massimini M, Vanninen R, Mervaala E, Karhu J, Soininen H. PLoS One 2011;6:e26113. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Cost-Effectiveness of a Health Intervention Program with Risk Reductions for Getting Demented: Results of a Markov Model in a Swedish/Finnish Setting. Zhang Y, Kivipelto M, Solomon A, Wimo A. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2011;26:735-44.

Association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of Parkinson disease: The National FINRISK study. Qiu C, Hu G, Kivipelto M, Laatikainen T, Antikainen R, Fratiglioni L, Jousilahti P, Tuomilehtio J. Hypertension 2011;57:1094-100. Epub 2011 May 2.

Changes in vascular risk factors from midlife to late life and white matter lesions: a 20-year follow-up study. Vuorinen M, Solomon A, Rovio S, Nieminen L, Kåreholt I, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2011;31:119-25. Epub 2011 Jan 272.

Diffusion tensor imaging and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Liu Y, Spulber G, Lehtimäki KK, Könönen M, Hallikainen I, Gröhn H, Kivipelto M, Hallikainen M, Vanninen R, Soininen H. Neurobiology of Aging 2011;32:1558-71.

Onset and Rate of Cognitive Change Before Dementia Diagnosis: Findings from two Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Studies. Thorvaldsson V, Jonsson-Laukka E, Kivipelto M, Simona S, Xinxin G,  Östling S,  Börjesson A, Gustafson D, Johansson J, Bäckman L, Winblad B, Skoog I, Fratiglioni L. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 2010;17:1-9.

Heavy Smoking in Midlife and Long-term Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia. Rusanen M, Kivipelto M, Quesenberry CP Jr, Zhou J, Whitmer RA. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011;171:333-9. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Exercise, fitness and cognition – A randomised controlled trial in older individuals: The DR's EXTRA study. Komulainen P, Kivipelto M, Lakka TA, Savonen K, Hassinen M, Kiviniemi V, Hänninen T, Rauramaa R. European Geriatric Medicine Volume 2010;5:266-272.

Midlife smoking, apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a population-based cardiovascular risk factors, aging and dementia study. Rusanen M, Rovio S, Ngandu T, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2010;30:277-284.

HPA  Axis Dysregulation Associated to Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype in Alzheimer's Disease. Gil-Bea FJ, Aisa B, Salomon A, Solas M, Del Carmen Mugueta M, Winblad B, Kivipelto M, Cedazo-Mínguez A, Ramírez MJ. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Epub 2010 Sep 21.

Insulin Levels are Decreased in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Women with Prodomal Alzheimer's Disease. Gil-Bea FJ, Solas M, Solomon A, Mugueta C, Winblad B, Kivipelto M, Ramirez MJ, Cedazo-Mínguez A. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Epub 2010 Aug 30.

Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Hooshmand B, Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Rusanen M, Leiviskä J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Neurology 2010;75:1408-14.

Diabetes, Alzheimer's Disease, and Vascular Dementia: a population-based neuropathological study. Ahtiluoto S, Polvikoski T, Peltola M, Solomon A, Winblad B, Sulkava R, Kivipelto M. Neurology 2010;75:1195-202. Epub 2010 Aug 25.

Differences in Cortical Thickness in Healthy Controls, Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Longitudinal Study. Julkunen V, Niskanen E, Koikkalainen J, Herukka SK, Pihlajamäki M, Hallikainen M, Kivipelto M, Muehlboeck S, Evans AC, Vanninen R, Soininen H. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2010;21:1141-51. Epub 2010 Aug 6.

High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age. Mangialasche F, Kivipelto M., Mecocci P, Rizzuto D, Palmer K, Winblad K, Fratiglioni L. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2010;20:1029-37.

Randomized controlled trial of atorvastatin in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: LEADe. Feldman HH, Doody RS, Kivipelto M, Sparks DL, Waters DD, Jones RW, Schwam E, Schindler R, Hey-Hadavi J, DeMicco DA, Breazna A; LEADe Investigators. Neurology 2010;74:956-64.

Use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and the Risk of Dementia in a Predominantly Male Population: A Prospective Cohort Analysis. Li N-C, Lee A, Whitmer A, Kivipelto M, Lawler E, Kazis L, Wolozin B. BMJ. 2010;340:b5465.

Lipid-lowering treatment is related to decreased risk of dementia: a population-based study (FINRISK). Solomon A, Sippola R, Soininen H, Wolozin B, Tuomilehto J, Laatikainen T , Kivipelto M. Neurodegenerative Disorders 2010;7:180-2. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

A prospective study on the development of Alzheimer's disease with regard to thyroid-stimulating hormone and homocysteine. Annerbo S, Kivipelto M, Lokk J. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2009;28:275-80.

Cortical thickness analysis to detect progressive mild cognitive impairment — a reference to Alzheimer's disease. Julkunen V, Niskanen E, Muehlboeck S, Pihlajamäki M, Könönen M, Hallikainen M, Kivipelto M, Tervo S, Vanninen R, Evans A, Soininen H. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2009;28:404-412.

Plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol reflect brain volumes in patients without objective cognitive impairment but not in those with Alzheimer's disease. Solomon A, Leoni V, Kivipelto M, Besga A, Öksengård AR, Julin P, Svensson L,  Wahlund L-O, Andreasen N, Winblad B, Soininen H, Björkhem I. Neuroscience letters 2009;462:89-93.

Midlife serum cholesterol and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia three decades later. Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Wolozin B, Zhou J, Whitmer RA.  Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2009;28:75-80.

Association between mid-life marital status and cognitive function in later life: population based cohort study. Håkanson K, Rovio S, Helkala E-L, Winblad B, Vilska A-R, Soininen H, Nissinen A, Mohammed A, Kivipelto M. BMJ 2009; Jul2;339:b2462.

Homocysteine and Holo-Transcobalamin and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: A prospective study. Kivipelto M, Annerbo S, Hultdin J,  Bäckman L, Viitanen M, Fratiglioni L, Lökk J. European Journal of Neurology 2009;16(7):808-13.

Coffee and Tea Drinking at Midlife and Dementia Later in Life: A Population-based CAIDE Study. Eskelinen MH, Ngandu T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 2009;16:85-91.

The effect of midlife physical activity on structural brain changes in the elderly. Rovio S, Spulber G, Nieminen L, Niskanen E, Winblad B, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Neurobiology of Aging 2010;31:1927-36. Epub 2008 Dec 5.

Differential Hypometabolism Patterns According to Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes. Jauhiainen A, Kangasmaa T, Rusanen M, Niskanen E, Tervo S, Kivipelto M, Vanninen R, Kuikka J, Soininen H. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2008;26:490-8.

Whole brain atrophy rate predicts conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Spulber G, Niskanen E, MacDonald S, Smilovici O, Chen K, Reiman E, Jauhiainen A, Hallikainen M, Tervo S, Wahlund L-O. Vanninen R, Kivipelto M, Soininen H. Neurobiology of Aging 2010:31:1601-5. Epub 2008 Sep 29.

BDNF is a novel marker of cognitive function in ageing women: The DR's EXTRA Study. Komulainen P, Pedersen M, Hänninen T, Bruunsgaard H, Lakka T, Kivipelto M, Hassinen M, Rauramaa T, Pedersen B, Rauramaa R. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 2008:90:596-603.

A multi-metabolite analysis of serum by 1H NMR spectroscopy: early systemic signs of Alzheimer's disease. Tukiainen T, Tynkkynen T, Mäkinen V-P, Jylänki P, Kangas A, Hokkanen J, Vehtari A, Gröhn O, Hallikainen M, Soininen H, Kivipelto M, Groop P-H, Kaski K, Laatikainen R, Soininen P, Pirttilä T, Ala-Korpela M. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008:375:356-61. Epub 2008 Aug 26.

The LEADe Study (Atorvastatin/Donepezil in AD): Design and Baseline Characteristics. Jones R*, MB, Kivipelto M*, Feldman H, Sparks L, Doody R, Waters D, Hey-Hadavi J, Breazna A, Schindler RJ, Ramos H on behalf of the LEADe investigators. Alzheimer's and Dementia 2008;4:145-53. *shared correspondence

The International Network on Public Health and Aging (INOPA): Introducing a Life Course Perspective to the Public Health Agenda. Wahlin A, Anstey KJ, McDonald SW, Ahmed SM, Kivipelto M, Kunnukattil KS, Mai TT, Nilsson LG, Streatfield PK, Vanboxtel MP, Kabir ZN. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 2008;23:97-105.

Fat intake at midlife and cognitive impairment later in life: a population-based CAIDE study. Eskelinen MH, Ngandu T, Helkala EL, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2008;23:741-7.

Total cholesterol and the risk of Parkinson disease. Hu G, Antikainen R, Jousilahti P, Kivipelto M, Tuomilehto J. Neurology 2008;70:1972-9.

Apolipoprotein E ε4 Magnifies Lifestyle Risks for Dementia: A Population Based Study. Kivipelto M, Rovio S, Ngandu T, Kåreholt I, Laitinen M, Winblad B, Hachinski V, Cedazo-Minguez A, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2008;12:2762-71.

Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 Allele Is Associated with Increased Atrophy in Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study. Hämäläinen A, Grau-Olivares M, Tervo S, Niskanen E, Pennanen C, Huuskonen J, Kivipelto M, Hanninen T, Tapiola M, Vanhanen M, Hallikainen M, Helkala EL, Nissinen A, Vanninen RL, Soininen H. Neurodegenerative Diseases 2008;5:186-9.

Levels of ApoE in cerebrospinal fluid are correlated with Tau and 24S-hydroxycholesterol in patients with cognitive disorders. Shafaati M, Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Björkhem I, Leoni V. Neurosci Lett. 2007;425:78-82.

Serum total cholesterol, statins and cognition in non-demented elderly. Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Ngandu T, Wolozin B, MacDonald S, Winblad B, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Neurobiology of Aging 2009;30:1006-9. Epub 2007 Nov 19.

Voxel-based morphometry to detect brain atrophy in progressive mild cognitive impairment. Hämäläinen A, Tervo S, Grau-Olivares M, Niskanen E, Pennanen C, Huuskonen J, Kivipelto M, Hänninen T, Tapiola M, Vanhanen M, Hallikainen M, Helkala EL, Nissinen A, Vanninen R, Soininen H. Neuroimage. 2007;37:1122-31.

Carotid intima-media thickness and cognitive function in elderly women: a population-based study. Komulainen P, Kivipelto M, Lakka T, Hassinen M, Helkala E-L, Patja K, Nissinen, Rauramaa R. Neuroepidemiology 2007;28:207-13.

Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein with cognitive function in elderly women. Komulainen P, Lakka T, Kivipelto M, Hassinen M, Helkala E-L, Nissinen, Rauramaa R. Age and Ageing 2007;36:443-8.

Education and dementia: what lies behind the association? Ngandu T, von Strauss E, Winblad B, Helkala E-L, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Neurology 2007;69:1442-50.

Work-related Physical Activity and the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease. Rovio S, Kåreholt I, Viitanen M, Winblad B Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Nissinen A, Kivipelto M. Int J Ger Psych Int J Ger Psych 2007;22:874-82.

Serum cholesterol changes after midlife and late-life cognition: 21-year follow-up study. Solomon A, Kåreholt I, Ngandu T, Winbald B, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Neurology 2007; 68:751-6

Metabolic syndrome and cognitive function in elderly women: a population-based study. Komulainen P, Lakka TA, Kivipelto M, Hassinen M, Helkala E-L, Nissinen A, Rauramaa R. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2007;23:29-34.

MRI of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in mild cognitive impairment: A follow-up study. Tapiola T, Pennanen C, Tapiola M, Tervo S, Kivipelto M, Hänninen T, Pihlajamäki M, Laakso MP, Hallikainen M, Hämäläinen A, Vanhanen M, Helkala E-L, Vanninen R, Nissinen A, Rossi R, Frisoni GB, Soininen H. Neurobiology of Aging 2008 29:31-8. published on line 2006 Nov 13.

Body mass index and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Hu G, Jousilahti P, Nissinen A, Antikainen R, Kivipelto M, Tuomilehto J. Neurology 2006;67:1955-1959.

Alcohol Drinking and Cognitive Functions: Findings from the Cardiovascular Risk factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. Ngandu T, Helkala E-L, Soininen H, Winblad B, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Kivipelto M. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2006; 23:140-149.

Risk Score for prediction of dementia risk in 20 years among middle aged people: a longitudinal population based study. Kivipelto M, Ngandu T, Laatikainen T, Winblad B, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J. Lancet Neurology 2006;9:735-41.

The effect of apolipoprotein polymorphism on brain in mild cognitive impairment: a voxel-based morphometric study. Pennanen C, Testa C, Boccardi M, Laakso M, Hallikainen M, Helkala E-L, Hänninen T, Kivipelto M, Könönen M, Nissinen A, Tervo S, Vanhanen M, Vanninen R, Frisoni G, Soininen H. Dem Ger Cogn Disorders 2006;22:99

Rethinking the dementia diagnoses in a population-based study: What is Alzheimer's disease and what is vascular dementia? A study from the Kungsholmen Project. Aguero-Torres H, Kivipelto M, von Strauss E. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2006;22:244-249.

Are the CSF levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol a sensitive biomarker for early Alzheimer's Disease? Leoni V, Shaafti M, Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Björkhem I, Wahlund L-O. Neuroscience Letters 2006;397:83-7.

Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a population-base study. Laitinen M, Ngandu T, Rovio S, Helkala E-L, Uusitalo U, Viitanen M, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2006;22:99-107.

High cholesterol diet induces tau hyperphosphorylation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Rahman A, Akterin S, Flores-Morales A, Crisby M, Kivipelto M, Schultzberg M, Cedazo-Mínguez A. FEBS Letters 2005;579:6411-6.

Leisure time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Rovio S, Kåreholt I, Helkala E-L, Viitanen M, Winblad B, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Nissinen A, Kivipelto M. Lancet Neurology 2005;4:705-11.

Obesity and vascular risk factors at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Kivipelto M, Ngandu T, Fratiglioni L, Viitanen M, Kåreholt I, Winblad B, Helkala E-L, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H , Nissinen A. Arch Neurol 2005;62:1556-1560

Apolipoprotein E, B vitamins, and cognitive function in older adults. Bunce D, Kivipelto M, Wahlin Å. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005;60:41-8.

A voxel-based morphometry study on mild cognitive impairment. Pennanen C, Testa C, Laakso MP, Hallikainen M, Helkala E-L, Hänninen T, Kivipelto M, Könönen M, Nissinen A, Tervo S, Vanhanen M, Vanninen R, Frisoni GB, Soininen H. JNNP 2005;76:11-14.

Serum lipids and hippocampal volume: The link to Alzheimer's disease? Wolf H, Hensel A, Arendt T, Kivipelto M, Winblad B, Gertz HJ. Ann Neurol 2004;56:745-749.

Alcohol drinking in middle age and subsequent risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in old age: a prospective population-based study. Anttila T, Helkala E-L, Viitanen M, Kåreholt I, Fratiglioni L, Winblad W, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Kivipelto M. BMJ 2004;329:539-542. 

Risk and protective effects of the APOE gene towards Alzheimer's disease in the Kungsholmen Project: variation by age and sex. Qiu C, Kivipelto M, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. JNNP 2004;75:828-833.

Depletion of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in aged rats decreases the therapeutic effect of nicotine, but not of tetrahydroaminoacridine. Riekkinen M, Aroviita L, Kivipelto M, Taskila K, Riekkinen P Jr. Eur J Pharmacol 1996;308:243-250.

Serum Testosterone Levels in Males with Alzheimer's Disease. Pennanen C, Laakso MP, Kivipelto M, Ramberg J, Soininen H. J Neuroend 2004;16:95-98.

Incidence and risk factors for mild cognitive impairment: A population-based three-year follow-up study of cognitively healthy elderly subjects. Tervo S, Kivipelto M, Hänninen T, Vanhanen M, Hallikainen M, Mannermaa A, Soininen H. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;17:196-203

Utilization of cognitive support in episodic free recall as a function of apolipoprotein E and vitamin B12 or folate among adults aged 75 years and older. Bunce D, Kivipelto M, Wahlin Å. Neuropsychology 2004;18:362-370.

Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in mild cognitive impairment and early AD. Pennanen C, Kivipelto M, Tuomainen S, Hartikainen P, Hänninen T, Laakso MP, Hallikainen M, Vanhanen M, Nissinen A, Helkala E-L, Vainio P, Vanninen R, Partanen K, Soininen H. Neurobiol Aging 2004;25:303-310.

Decreased  brain creatine in elderly apolipoprotein E e4 carriers. Laakso MP, Hiltunen Y, Könönen M, Kivipelto M, Koivisto A, Hallikainen M, Soininen H. Journal of Neural Transmission 2003;110:267-275.

Usefulness of repeated presentation of Mini-Mental State Examination as a diagnostic procedure – a population-based study. Helkala E-L, Kivipelto M, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Heinonen H, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Nissinen A. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2002;106:341-346.

Midlife income, occupation, APOE status, and dementia. A population-based study. Anttila T, Helkala E-L, Kivipelto M, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Heinonen H, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Nissinen A.  Neurology 2002;59:887-893.

Vascular risk factors, ApoE e4 allele, and gender and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: Perspectives on prevention. Kivipelto M, Helkala E-L, Nissinen A, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J. Drug Development Research 2002;56:85-94.

Apolipoprotein E e4 allele, elevated midlife total cholesterol level and high midlife systolic blood  pressure are independent risk factors for late-life Alzheimer's disease. Kivipelto M, Helkala E-L, Laakso MP, Hänninen T, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Iivonen S, Mannermaa A, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Soininen H. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;137:149-155.

Midlife vascular risk factors and late-life  mild cognitive impairment. A population-based study. Kivipelto M, Helkala E-L, Hänninen T, Laakso MP, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A. Neurology 2001;56:1683-1689.

Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease in later life: longitudinal, population based study. Kivipelto M, Helkala E-L, Laakso MP, Hänninen T, Hallikainen M, Alhainen K, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A. BMJ 2001;322:1447-1451.

APOE e4 is associated with weight loss in women with AD: a population-based study. Vanhanen M, Kivipelto M, Koivisto K, Kuusisto J, Mykkänen L, Helkala E-L, Hänninen T, Kervinen K, Kesäniemi A, Laakso MP, Soininen H, Laakso M. Neurology 2001;56:655-659.