Pimaric acid

( > 96%)

CAS Number:  127-27- 5

Chemical Formula: C20H30O2

Properties

 Purity > 96%
 Melting point 217 - 218 °C
 Storage temperature +20 °C
 Solubility in water soluble
 Molecular Weight 302.458
Pimaric acid

Available modifications

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Publications related to Pimaric acid

Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

Hosseinihashemi S.K. et. al

Nat Prod Res. 2017 Mar;31(6):681-685.

Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

Modularity of Conifer Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis: P450 Enzymes of Different CYP720B Clades Use Alternative Substrates and Converge on the Same Products.

Geisler K. et. al

Plant Physiol. 2016 May;171(1):152-64.

Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP720B subfamily play a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids (DRAs), which are a major component of the conifer oleoresin defense system. CYP720Bs exist in families of up to a dozen different members in conifer genomes and fall into four different clades (I-IV). Only two CYP720B members, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) PtCYP720B1 and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) PsCYP720B4, have been characterized previously. Both are multisubstrate and multifunctional clade III enzymes, which catalyze consecutive three-step oxidations in the conversion of diterpene olefins to DRAs. These reactions resemble the sequential diterpene oxidations affording ent-kaurenoic acid from ent-kaurene in gibberellin biosynthesis. Here, we functionally characterized the CYP720B clade I enzymes CYP720B2 and CYP720B12 in three different conifer species, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and compared their activities with those of the clade III enzymes CYP720B1 and CYP720B4 of the same species. Unlike the clade III enzymes, clade I enzymes were ultimately found not to be active with diterpene olefins but converted the recently discovered, unstable diterpene synthase product 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene. Through alternative routes, CYP720B enzymes of both clades produce some of the same profiles of conifer oleoresin DRAs (abietic acid, neoabietic acid, levopimaric acid, and palustric acid), while clade III enzymes also function in the formation of pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid. These results highlight the modularity of the specialized (i.e. secondary) diterpene metabolism, which produces conifer defense metabolites through variable combinations of different diterpene synthase and CYP720B enzymes.

Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

Mizokami S.S. et. al

PLoS One. 2016 Feb 19;11(2):e0149656.

Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation.

Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

Zia K.M. et. al

Int J Biol Macromol. 2016 Jan;82:1028-40.

A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration.

Synthesis and anticancer activity of quinopimaric and maleopimaric acids’ derivatives.

Tretyakova E.V. et. al

Bioorg Med Chem. 2014 Nov 15;22(22):6481-9.

A series of quinopimaric and maleopimaric acids’ derivatives modified in the E-ring, at the carbonyl- and carboxyl-groups were synthesized and their in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated at the National Cancer Institute, USA. Methyl esters of dihydroquinopimaric, 1a,4a-dehydroquinopimaric, 2,3-epoxyquinopimaric, 1-ethylenketal-dihydroquinopimaric, 1-ethylenketal-4-hydroxyiminodihydroquinopimaric acids displayed an activity on renal cancer, leukemia, colon cancer and breast cancer cell lines in concentration 10(−5) M. Methyl 1,4-dihydroxyiminodihydroquinopimarate showed both a potent and broad spectrum of cytotoxic activity against NSC lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, renal cancer and leukemia and revealed in vivo antineoplastic activity towards mouse solid transplantable mammary carcinoma Ca755 and colon adenocarcinoma AKATOL. The information about antineoplastic activity of the studied quinopimaric and maleopimaric acids’ derivatives will be used for hit to lead optimization in these chemical series.

Pimaradienoic acid inhibits inflammatory pain: inhibition of NF-κB activation and cytokine production and activation of the NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway.

Possebon M.I. et. al

J Nat Prod. 2014 Nov 26;77(11):2488-96

Pimaradienoic acid (1) is a pimarane diterpene (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) extracted at high amounts from various plants including Vigueira arenaria Baker. Compound 1 inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, which are its only known anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the analgesic effects of 1. Oral administration of 1 (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing. This was also observed at 10 mg/kg via sc and ip routes. Both phases of the formalin- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced paw flinch and time spent licking the paw were inhibited by 1. Compound 1 inhibited carrageenan-, CFA-, and PGE2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Treatment with 1 inhibited carrageenan-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-33, and IL-10 and nuclear factor κB activation. Pharmacological inhibitors also demonstrated that the analgesic effects of 1 depend on activation of the NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway. Compound 1 did not alter plasma levels of AST, ALT, or myeloperoxidase activity in the stomach. These results demonstrate that 1 causes analgesic effects associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activation, reduction of cytokine production, and activation of the NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway.

Retinoic acid receptor agonist activity of naturally occurring diterpenes.

Tanabe H. et. al

Bioorg Med Chem. 2014 Jun 15;22(12):3204-12.

Recent accumulating evidence indicates that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may be useful for preventing or treating inflammation, allergy, and autoimmune diseases, despite its severe side effects. In this study, screening of 99 crude drugs for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligands by luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the methanol extract of Aralia cordata Rhizoma most effectively activates the transcriptional activity of RARα. Pimaradienoic acid (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) was subsequently isolated as the constituent capable of activating RAR. Pimaric acid and abietic acid, which have similar structures to pimaradienoic acid, were also found to be novel RAR agonists, although abietic acid only slightly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These three natural RAR agonists with diterpene structures, while structurally different from ATRA, were able to increase the mRNA levels of the constitutive androstane receptor in HepG2 cells, induce F9 cell differentiation followed by Cyp26a1 mRNA expression, and differentiate HL-60 cells via RAR activation in a different manner from ATRA. These results demonstrate that some diterpenes exist as naturally occurring RAR agonists and that the differences in chemical structure between ATRA and these diterpenes may induce distinct gene activation and a specific cellular response.

Aralia cordata inhibits triacylglycerol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells.

Kim M.O. et. al

J Med Food. 2013 Dec;16(12):1108-14.

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the first committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis, and has been considered as one of the drug targets for treating hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the GPAT inhibitors from natural products and to evaluate their effects. The methanol extract of Aralia cordata roots showed a strong inhibitory effect on the human GPAT1 activity. A further bioactivity-guided approach led to the isolation of ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, (PA), one of the major compounds of A. cordata, which suppressed the GPAT1 activity with IC50 value of 60.5 μM. PA markedly reduced de novo lysophosphatidic acid synthesis through inhibition of GPAT activity and therefore significantly decreased synthesis of TAG in the HepG2 cells. These results suggest that PA as well as A. cordata root extract could be beneficial in controlling lipid metabolism.

Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of pimaradienoic acid in mammalian cells.

Kato F.H. et. al

Mutat Res. 2012 Dec 12;749(1-2):87-92.

The pimarane-type diterpene, pimaradienoic acid (PA), is known for its diverse biological properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and trypanocidal. A preliminary study was undertaken to investigate in vitro the free radical-scavenging potential of PA. In addition, the genotoxic potential of PA and its ability to modulate genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin (DXR) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) were studied in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and in male Swiss mice using the comet and micronucleus assays. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay showed that PA exerted no antioxidant activity when compared to quercetin. The colony-forming assay using V79 cells showed that PA was cytotoxic at concentrations >5.0μg/mL. Therefore, concentrations of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0μg/mL were used for evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of PA in V79 cells. For genotoxic and antigenotoxic assessment in Swiss mice, three PA doses were tested (20, 40, and 80mg/kg body weight) based on the solubility limit of the diterpene in dimethylsulfoxide and water. The in vitro results demonstrated that PA induced DNA damage at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0μg/mL in the comet assay. However, no genotoxic effect was observed in the micronucleus test using V79 cells. In the in vivo evaluation of genotoxicity, a significant increase in the frequency of DNA damage was observed in hepatocytes of animals treated with the highest PA dose (80mg/kg) when compared to the control group, but this difference was not seen in the micronucleus test. Furthermore, PA significantly reduced the frequency of DXR- and MMS-induced micronuclei and extent of DNA damage in in vitro and in vivo test systems.

Fungal transformation and schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid.

Porto T.S. et. al

Chem Biodivers. 2012 Aug;9(8):1465-74.

The schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid (PA) and two derivatives, obtained by fungal transformation in the presence of Aspergillus ochraceus, were investigated. PA was the only compound with antischistosomal activity among the three diterpenes studied, with the ability to significantly reduce the viability of the parasites at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 μM. PA also promoted morphological alterations of the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni, separated all the worm couples, and affected the production and development of eggs. Moreover, this compound was devoid of toxicity toward human fibroblasts. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, PA at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly diminished the number of parasites in infected Balb/c mice. Taken together, these results show that PA may be potentially employed in the discovery of novel schistosomicidal agents, and that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis.

Pimaric acid from Aralia cordata has an inhibitory effect on TNF-α-induced MMP-9 production and HASMC migration via down-regulated NF-κB and AP-1.

Suh S.J. et. al

Chem Biol Interact. 2012 Aug 30;199(2):112-9.

Many studies have indicated that activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration are involved in neointimal formation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we revealed that pimaric acid (PiMA) purified from Aralia cordata had an inhibitory effect on MMP-9 production and migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Down-regulated MMP-9 mRNA transcription was detected in PiMA-treated cells using RT-PCR and the luciferase-tagged MMP-9 promoter assay. Results of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that PiMA-treated HASMCs showed decreased binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein-1 transcription factors. A Western-blot analysis using nuclear extract demonstrated that PiMA reduced the levels of NF-κB p65, c-Fos, p-c-Jun, Jun-D, and p-ATF2 proteins in the nucleus. In addition, TNF-α stimulated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) containing extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was inhibited by PiMA. Using the Transwell system, we found that PiMA inhibited TNF-α stimulated HASMC migration/invasion in a dose-dependent manner. To confirm whether MAPK mediated MMP-9 expression, we used MAPK inhibitors including U0126, SB253580, and SP600125 and found that those inhibitors reduced MMP-9 expression and HASMC migration/invasion. These results suggest that PiMA has potent anti-atherosclerotic activity with inhibitory action on MMP-9 production and cell migration in TNF-α-induced HASMCs.

4-epi-Pimaric acid: a phytomolecule as a potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent for oral cavity pathogens.

Ali F. et. al

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;31(2):149-59.

The present study focused on the antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory potential of 4-epi-pimaric acid isolated from aerial parts (stem and leaves) of Aralia cachemirica L. (Araliaceae) against oral cavity pathogens. 4-epi-Pimaric acid exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 4-16 μg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) two- to four-folds higher than MIC. There was significant inhibition in the biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans on the saliva coated surface (P < 0.05), and confocal microscopy revealed that 4-epi-pimaric acid inhibited the clumping and attachment of S. mutans. At 8 × MIC concentration, it significantly prevented the pH drop and reduced S. mutans biofilms (P < 0.05). Increased propidium iodide staining and leakage of 260- and 280-nm absorbing material by 4-epi-pimaric acid treated cells of S. mutans suggested that it probably causes disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane structure. It also exhibited significant suppression of TNF-α expression in human neutrophils, suggestive of its anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the compound was found to be significantly safe (IC(50) >100 μg/ml) in the MTT assay on AML-12 cell lines. In conclusion, 4-epi-pimaric acid showed promising antibacterial, anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory potency and this compound can be exploited for therapeutic application in oral microbial infections.

Design, synthesis and characterization of podocarpate derivatives as openers of BK channels.

Cui Y.M. et. al

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Oct 1;18(19):5197-200.

We found that the podocarpic acid structure provides a new scaffold for chemical modulators of large-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (BK channels). Structure-activity analysis indicates the importance of both the arrangement (i.e., location and orientation) of the carboxylic acid functionality of ring A and the hydrophobic region of ring C for expression of BK channel-opening activity.

SPE and HPLC/UV of resin acids in colophonium-containing products.

Nilsson U. et. al

J Sep Sci. 2008 Aug;31(15):2784-90.

A new method, involving SPE and HPLC/UV diode-array detection (DAD), was developed for the quantification of colophonium components in different consumer products, such as cosmetics. Colophonium is a common cause of contact dermatitis since its components can oxidize into allergens on exposure to air. Three different resin acids were used as markers for native and oxidized colophonium, abietic acid (AbA), dehydroabietic acid (DeA), and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-O-DeA). The SPE method, utilizing a mixed-mode hydrophobic and anion exchange retention mechanism, was shown to yield very clean extracts. The use of a urea-embedded C(12) HPLC stationary phase improved the separation of the resin acids compared to common C(18). Concentrations higher than 2 mg/g of both AbA and DeA were detected in wax strips. In this product also 7-O-DeA, a marker for oxidized colophonium, was detected at a level of 28 microg/g. The LODs were in the range of 7-19 microg/g and the LOQs 22-56 microg/g. The method is simple to use and can be applied on many types of technical products, not only cosmetics. For the first time, a method for technical products was developed, which separates AbA from pimaric acid.

Trypanocidal activity of oleoresin and terpenoids isolated from Pinus oocarpa.

Rubio J. et. al

Z Naturforsch C. 2005 Sep-Oct;60(9-10):711-6.

Fractionation with n-hexane/ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) by open column chromatography of the oleoresin from Pinus oocarpa Schiede yielded two diterpenes, pimaric acid (1) and dehydroabietic acid (5), the sesquiterpene longifolene (3) and a diterpenic mixture containing pimaric acid (1), isopimaric acid (4) and dehydroabietic acid (5). Subsequently, the isolated compounds, the mixture of 1, 4 and 5, the oleoresin and the dehydroabietic acid methyl ester (2), were tested in vitro against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The most active compounds were 1, 3 and the oleoresin, being as active as nifurtimox, a drug effective in the treatment of acute infection by American trypanosomiasis and used in this work as positive control.