( > 96%)
CAS Number: 514-10-3
Chemical Formula: C20H30O2
|Melting point||172–175 °C|
|Storage temperature||2-8 °C|
|Solubility in water||Insoluble|
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Publications related to Abietic acid
Ishtikhar M. et. al
Int J Biol Macromol. 2016 Jan;82:844-55.
This study represents an analysis of the thermal aggregation of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by novel rosin modified compounds. The aggregation process causes conformational alterations in the secondary and tertiary structures of the proteins. The conversion of globular protein to amorphous aggregates was carried out by spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic techniques to investigate the factors that are responsible for the structural, conformational and morphological alteration in the protein. Our outcome results show that the aggregation of HSA was dependent on the hydrophobicity, charge and temperature, because the formation of amorphous aggregates occurs in the presence of a novel cationic rosin compound, quaternary amine of rosin diethylaminoethyl ester (QRMAE), at 40°C and pH 7.4 (but at 25°C on similar pH value, there was no evidence of aggregate formation). In addition, the parent compound of QRMAE, i.e., abietic acid, and other derivatives such as nonionic rosin compounds [(RMPEG-750) and (RMA-MPEG-750)] do not shows the aggregating property. This work provides precise and necessary information that aid in the understanding the effects of rosin derivative compounds on HSA. This study also restrains important information for athletes, health providers, pharmaceutical companies, industries, and soft drink-processing companies.
Cheng C. et. al
Integr Zool. 2015 Sep;10(5):453-64
Mutualism between insects and fungi drives insect evolutionary diversification and niche expansion; for invasive insects, however, mechanisms by which they maintain mutualistic relationships with beneficial fungi have not been clearly explored. Here, we report that an invasive herbivorous insect, the red turpentine beetle (RTB), with its co-invasive mutualistic fungus, Leptographium procerum, has newly acquired a set of sympatric fungi during invasion, which could potentially outcompete the RTB mutualistic fungus. Host pine Pinus tabuliformis exhibited more rosin-based responses to the sympatric fungi than to RTB mutualistic fungus and, in return, the rapidly induced rosin suppressed the sympatric fungi more significantly than L. procerum. In addition, from direct fungal pairing competitions, we found that the antagonistic effects of sympatric fungi on L. procerum were drastically reduced under induced rosin defense. Our results together with previous findings imply that pine oleoresin defense (turpentine and rosin) might have been exploited by the invasive mutualistic fungus L. procerum, which helps to explain its invasion success and, by extension, its mutualistic partner RTB in China. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Massaro C.F. et. al
Fitoterapia. 2014 Jun;95:247-57
Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts.
Liu J. et. al
J Chromatogr A. 2014 Dec 5;1371:20-9.
Two resin acids, abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), in cosmetics may cause allergy or toxicoderma, but remain inaccurately investigated due to their lability. In this work, an accurate, sensitive, efficient and convenient method, utilizing the ultrasonic-assisted closed in-syringe extraction and derivatization (UCSED) prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and on-line tandem mass spectra (MS/MS), has been developed. Analytes are extracted by acetonitrile (10/1, v/m) in a sealed syringe under safe condition (60°C; 15 min; nitrogen atmosphere) and then in-syringe derivatized by 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazol-1-yl) ethyl-p-toluenesulfonate (ANITS) (8-fold, 93°C, 30 min, DMF as co-solvent, K2CO3 as catalyst). In UCSED, derivatization contributes to increase both analytical sensitivity and stability of analytes. Excellent linearity (r2≥0.9991) is achieved in wide range (75-3000 ng/mL (AA); 150-4500 ng/mL (DHAA)). Quite low detection limits (AA: 8.2-10.8 ng/mL; DHAA: 19.4-24.3 ng/mL) and limits of analyte concentration (LOAC) (AA: 30.0-44.5 ng/mL; DHAA: 70.9-86.7 ng/mL) ensure the trace analysis. This method is applied to the analysis of cosmetic samples, including depilatory wax strip, liquid foundation, mascara, eyeliner, eyebrow pencil and lip balm. No additional purification is required and no matrix effect is observed, demonstrating obvious advantages over conventional pretreatment such as solid phase extraction (SPE). Accuracy (RE: -3.2% to 2.51%), precision (RSD: 1.29-2.84%), recovery (95.20-103.63%; 95.51-104.22%) and repeatability (<0.23%; <2.87%) are significantly improved. Furthermore, this work plays a guiding role in developing a reasonable method for labile analytes.
Janocha S. et. al
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Oct;13(10):2328-40.
Malignant melanoma is a difficult cancer to treat due to the rapid development of resistance to drugs targeting single proteins. One response to this observation is to identify single pharmacologic agents that, due to a unique mechanism of action, simultaneously target multiple key pathways involved in melanoma development. Leelamine has been identified as functioning in this manner but has poor bioavailability in animals and causes lethality when administered intravenously. Therefore, a nanoliposomal-based delivery system has been developed, called Nanolipolee-007, which stably loads 60% of the compound. The nanoparticle was as effective at killing melanoma cells as leelamine dissolved in DMSO and was more effective at killing cultured melanoma compared with normal cells. Mechanistically, Nanolipolee-007 inhibited PI3K/Akt, STAT3, and MAPK signaling mediated through inhibition of cholesterol transport. Nanolipolee-007 inhibited the growth of preexisting xenografted melanoma tumors by an average of 64% by decreasing cellular proliferation, reducing tumor vascularization, and increasing cellular apoptosis, with negligible toxicity. Thus, a unique clinically viable nanoparticle-based drug has been developed containing leelamine for the treatment of melanoma that acts by inhibiting the activity of major signaling pathways regulating the development of this disease.
Slade J.H. and Knopf D.A.
Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Apr 28;15(16):5898-915.
The reactive uptake coefficients (γ) of OH by levoglucosan, abietic acid, and nitroguaiacol serving as surrogate compounds for biomass burning aerosol have been determined employing a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer coupled to a rotating-wall flow-tube reactor over a wide range of [OH] ∼10(7)-10(11) molecule cm(-3). Volatilisation products of these organic substrates due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH have been determined at 1 atm using a high resolution proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). γ range within 0.05-1 for [OH] = 2.6 × 10(7)-3 × 10(9) molecule cm(-3) for all investigated organic compounds, but decrease to 0.008-0.034 for [OH] = 4.1 × 10(10)-6.7 × 10(10) molecule cm(-3). γ as a function of [OH] can be described by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, neglecting bulk processes, suggesting that despite its strong reactivity, OH is mobile on surfaces prior to reaction. The best fit Langmuir-Hinshelwood parameters on average are K(OH) = 3.81 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) and k(s) = 9.71 × 10(-17) cm(2) molecule(-1) s(-1) for all of the investigated organic compounds. Volatilised products have been identified indicating enhancements over background of 50% up to a factor of 15. Amongst the common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified between levoglucosan, abietic acid, and nitroguaiacol were methanol, acetaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid. VOCs having the greatest enhancement over background were glucic acid from levoglucosan, glycolic acid from abietic acid, and methanol and nitric acid from nitroguaiacol. Reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of glucic acid, glycolic acid, methanol, and nitric acid are proposed. Estimated lower limits of atmospheric lifetimes of biomass burning aerosol particles, 200 nm in diameter, by heterogeneous OH oxidation under fresh biomass burning plume conditions are ∼2 days and up to ∼2 weeks for atmospheric background conditions. However, estimated lifetimes depend crucially on [OH] and corresponding γ, emphasising the need to determine γ under relevant conditions.
Smith D.J. et. al
J Bacteriol. 2007 Sep;189(17):6195-204.
Abietane diterpenoids are defense compounds synthesized by trees that are abundant in natural environments and occur as significant pollutants from pulp and paper production. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 has diverse catabolic capabilities and represents an important group of heterotrophic bacteria in soil environments. The genome sequence of LB400 revealed homologs of the dit genes of Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9, which encode abietane diterpenoid degradation. LB400 grew on abietic acid (AbA), dehydroabietic acid (DhA), palustric acid (PaA), and 7-oxo-DhA. A Xeotron microarray set, with probes for 8450 of the estimated 9000 LB400 genes, was used to compare the transcriptomes of LB400 growing on DhA versus on succinate. On DhA, 97 genes were upregulated, 43 of which were within an 80-kb cluster located on the 1.47-Mbp megaplasmid of LB400. Upregulated genes in this cluster encode a permease, a ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase system (DitA), a ring-cleavage dioxygenase (DitC), a P450 monooxygenase (DitQ), and enzymes catalyzing beta-oxidation-type reactions. Disruption of the ditA1 gene, encoding the alpha-subunit of DitA, abolished growth on these abietanes. Analyses of the metabolism of abietanes by cell suspensions of wild-type LB400 and the ditA1 mutant indicate a convergent pathway, with 7-oxo-DhA as a common intermediate for ring hydroxylation by DitA. Also, 7-oxo-PaA was identified as a metabolite of both AbA and PaA. Sequence analysis indicates that genes encoding this pathway have been horizontally transferred among Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria.
Yao F. et. al
Bioresour Technol. 2013 Feb;129:58-64.
A novel chiral monomer N-propargyl abietamide, M1, was synthesized from abietic acid and catalytically polymerized with (nbd)Rh+B-(C6H5)4 (nbd=norbornadiene), providing polymer [poly(1)] with a molecular weight of 13,000-36,000 at a yield of 59-84%. Poly(1) did not form stable helices in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature whereas copolymerization of M1 and the achiral N-propargylamide monomer, M2, led to the formation of helical optically active copolymers as indicated by circular dichroism studies, UV-vis spectroscopy, and specific optical rotation measurements. Hydrogels were prepared based on an optically active helical copolymer, poly(M1(0.32)-co-M2(0.68)) that exhibited enantioselective recognition toward l-alanine. The novel chiral polymers derived from abietic acid are expected to find applications in such areas as chiral recognition, chiral resolution, and chiral catalysis.
González M.A. et. al
Eur J Med Chem. 2010 Feb;45(2):811-6.
A series of C18-oxygenated derivatives of dehydroabietic acid were synthesized from commercial abietic acid and evaluated for their cytotoxic, antimycotic, and antiviral activities.
Siebert M.R. et. al
J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jun 1;133(21):8335-43.
The need for enzymatic steering in abietic acid biosynthesis: gas-phase chemical dynamics simulations of carbocation rearrangements on a bifurcating potential energy surface.
Janocha S. and Bernhardt R.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Sep;97(17):7639-49
Cytochrome P450 enzymes exhibit a tremendous potential for biotechnological applications due to their ability to introduce oxygen into non-activated carbon atoms. Their catalytic diversity is complemented by a broad substrate range covering many natural compounds. Especially the functionalization of terpenoids by P450s becomes increasingly interesting due to the diverse biological effects of these compounds. The bacterial CYP105A1 from Streptomyces griseolus was recently identified to carry out a one-step hydroxylation of several abietane-type resin acids. In this work, a whole-cell system for CYP105A1 with its heterologous electron transfer proteins Arh1 and Etp1(fd) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was designed in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Additionally, an enzyme-coupled cofactor regeneration system was integrated by co-expression of alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis. In order to overcome mass transfer limitations of substrate into the cell, different agents were tested towards their permeabilizing activity on the E. coli membrane. The peptide antibiotic polymyxin B proved to be the most effective permeabilizer. After optimising the expression and conversion conditions, the cells were able to completely convert 200 μM of abietic acid into 15-hydroxyabietic acid within 2 h, exhibiting an initial conversion rate of 125 μM/h. These results demonstrate the high potential of this whole-cell system for the synthesis of functionalized resin acid diterpenoids.
Bleif S. et. al
Chembiochem. 2011 Mar 7;12(4):576-82.
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP106A2 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368 catalyzes hydroxylations of a variety of 3-oxo-Δ(4) -steroids such as progesterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC), mainly in the 15β-position. We combined a high-throughput screening and a rational approach for identifying new substrates of CYP106A2. The diterpene resin acid abietic acid was found to be a substrate and was docked into the active site of a CYP106A2 homology model to provide further inside into the structural basis of the regioselectivity of hydroxylation. The products of the hydroxylation reaction were analyzed by HPLC and the V(max) and K(m) values were calculated. The corresponding reaction products were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and identified as 12α- and 12β-hydroxyabietic acid. CYP106A2 was therefore identified as the first reported bacterial cytochrome P450 diterpene hydroxylase. Furthermore, an effective whole-cell catalyst for the selective allylic 12α- and 12β-hydroxylation was applied to produce the hydroxylated products.
Smith D.J. et. al
J Bacteriol. 2008 Mar;190(5):1575-83.
The 80-kb dit cluster of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 encodes the catabolism of abietane diterpenoids. This cluster includes ditQ and ditU, predicted to encode cytochromes P450 (P450s) belonging to the poorly characterized CYP226A subfamily. Using proteomics, we identified 16 dit-encoded proteins that were significantly more abundant in LB400 cells grown on dehydroabietic acid (DhA) or abietic acid (AbA) than in succinate-grown cells. A key difference in the catabolism of DhA and AbA lies in the differential expression of the P450s; DitU was detected only in the AbA-grown cells, whereas DitQ was expressed both during growth on DhA and during growth on AbA. Analyses of insertion mutants showed that ditQ was required for growth on DhA, ditU was required for growth on AbA, and neither gene was required for growth on the central intermediate, 7-oxo-DhA. In cell suspension assays, patterns of substrate removal and metabolite accumulation confirmed the role of DitU in AbA transformation and the role of DitQ in DhA transformation. Spectral assays revealed that DitQ binds both DhA (dissociation constant, 0.98 +/- 0.01 microM) and palustric acid. Finally, DitQ transformed DhA to 7-hydroxy-DhA in vitro. These results demonstrate the distinct roles of the P450s DitQ and DitU in the transformation of DhA and AbA, respectively, to 7-oxo-DhA in a convergent degradation pathway.
Axelsson S. et. al
J Environ Monit. 2011 Oct;13(10):2940-5.
Resin acids are constituents of natural and technical products of widespread use. Exposure is known to cause health effects in the airways and on the skin. Liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/pos ESI-MS) was investigated for determination of 7-oxodehydroabietic (7-OXO), dehydroabietic (DHAA) and abietic acid (AA) in wood dust-containing air samples as a derivatisation-free alternative to the GC/FID HSE method 83/2, developed by the Health and Safety Executive UK. The resin acid 7-OXO was measured as a marker for oxidised resin acids, which are known to be the main contact allergens in colophonium. The found detection limits were 0.42 ng m(-3) for 7-OXO, 5.2 ng m(-3) for DHAA and 9.4 ng m(-3) for AA, respectively, which are considerably lower than with the GC/FID method (24, 115 and 89 ng m(-3)). The two methods correlated well, although consistently and significantly lower concentrations of 7-OXO were detected with LC/MS. The higher concentration of this compound with MDHS 83/2 is suggested to be an artefact from the derivatisation step in the presence of soluble wood dust remains.
Di Paolo R.E. et. al
Chemphyschem. 2008 Oct 24;9(15):2214-20.
The synthesis and photophysical properties of six new abietic acid based amine end-capped p-phenylenevinylene trimers (AECPV3) in their lowest excited singlet states are presented. The AECPV3 compounds show a large red-shift of both the absorption (25-30 nm) and emission (37-42 nm) maxima with respect to those of the corresponding trimers. Picosecond time-resolved fluorescence data reveal the presence of a fast conformational relaxation process (40-62 ps) of the initially excited compounds, leading to more planar conformers. The conformational relaxation time is proportional to the volume of both the side chain and the amine groups.
Frank P. et. al
Anal Chem. 2012 May 15;84(10):4419-28.
In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic (dimethylsulfonio)propionate. High-valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality.
González M.A. et. al
Eur J Med Chem. 2009 Jun;44(6):2468-72
A series of C18-oxygenated derivatives of abietic acid were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic, antimycotic, and antiviral activities. In general, the introduction of an aldehyde group at C18 did improve the resultant bioactivity, while the presence of an acid or alcohol led to less active compounds.
Samoylenko V. et. al
Phytother Res. 2008 Dec;22(12):1570-6.
A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 strains (IC(50) = 1.9 and 2.0 microg/mL, respectively), while totarol (6), ferruginol (7) and 7beta-hydroxyabieta-8,13-diene-11,12-dione (8) inhibited Leishmania donovani promastigotes with IC(50) values of 3.5-4.6 microg/mL. In addition, totarol demonstrated nematicidal and antifouling activities against Caenorhabditis elegans and Artemia salina at a concentration of 80 microg/mL and 1 microg/mL, respectively. The resinous exudate of J. virginiana afforded known antibacterial E-communic acid (4) and 4-epi-abietic acid (5), while the volatile oil from its trunk wood revealed large quantities of cedrol (9). Using GC/MS, the two known abietanes totarol (6) and ferruginol (7) were identified from the berries of J. procera, J. excelsa and J. phoenicea.
He Y. et. al
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012 Jul;66:345-8.
An herbal drug for the treatment of psoriasis showed severe clinical adverse reactions. The main component of adulterant was isolated from the drug and its chemical structure was elucidated as abietic acid using NMR, HR-MS, and HPLC-DAD-MS. Although abietic acid had ever been used in clinical study for the treatment of psoriasis, it is not an approved drug. Its adulteration is very dangerous for the patients.
Hwang K.H. et. al
J Med Food. 2011 Sep;14(9):1052-6.
We investigated the anti-obesity effect of abietic acid in mice fed a high-fat diet with emphasis on changes in adipogenesis in epididymal adipose tissues. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups and fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD plus oral administration of abietic acid (20 mg/kg of body weight/day [LA] or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day [HA]) for 8 weeks. Compared with the HFD group, mice orally administered 40 mg of abietic acid/kg of body weight/day exhibited significantly decreased body weight and adipose tissue weights. Serum triglyceride concentrations in the HA group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group, as were the levels of serum insulin and leptin. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that epididymal adipose tissue mass was decreased by abietic acid administration. Abietic acid also inhibited the protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, and CD36 in epididymal adipose tissues, which are up-regulated by HFDs. These data demonstrate that abietic acid has an anti-obesity effect in mice mediated by the regulation of adipogenesis.
Ohmori K. and Kawamura Y.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009 Apr;26(4):568-73
Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHA) have been detected in virgin paper products and recycled paper products used for food packaging. In order to evaluate the cell transformation activities of AA and DHA, the Bhas 42 cell-transformation assay for initiation and promotion was carried out. Tested in the initiation stage, AA and DHA did not significantly increase transformation frequencies. On the other hand, both chemicals induced transformed foci dose dependently at the promotion stage. The highest transformed foci density induced by AA was about 13 foci/well at 60 nmol ml(-1), and that of DHA was about 16 foci/well at 40 nmol ml(-1) (solvent control = 2.3 +/- 1.4 foci/well). The present results suggest that AA and DHA may have tumour-promoting potential.
Eriksson K. et. al
J Environ Monit. 2008 Mar;10(3):345-52.
The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for quantifying dermal exposure to the resin acids 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), abietic acid (AA), and pimaric acid (PA). In addition the method was evaluated in occupational settings during production of wood pellets. Tape-strips were spiked with the substances to evaluate the recovery of the acids from the tape. The removal efficiency of the tape was assessed by tape-stripping a specified area on a glass plate spiked with resin acids. The recovery of the acids from human skin in vivo was evaluated by applying acids in methanol onto the skin of volunteers. Occupational dermal exposure to the resin acids was assessed by tape-stripping the skin of workers involved in the production of wood pellets. The resin acids were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The limit of detection was 15 pg (7-OXO), 150 pg (DHAA), 285 pg (AA) and 471 pg (PA) per injection. The recovery from spiked tapes was in general 100%. The removal efficiency of the tape was 48-101%. Recovery tests from human skin in vivo showed a mean recovery of 27%. Quantifiable amounts of resin acids were observed on four different skin areas with an increase in exposure during a work shift. This study shows that occupational dermal exposure to resin acids can be assessed by tape-stripping and quantified by LC-MS.